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The introduction of psychoanalysis to China over the last twenty years brings a clash between Eastern and Western philosophical backgrounds. Chinese patients, therapists, and trainees struggle with assumptions inherent in an analytic attitude steeped in Western ideas of individualism that are often at odds with a Chinese Confucian ethic of respect for the family and the work group. The situation is further complicated by the rapid evolution of Chinese culture itself, emerging from years of trauma, new economics, and the one-child policy of the last generation that has introduced a new Chinese brand of individualism and new family structure that are not equivalent to those of the West. This volume breaks new ground in exploring these issues and challenges to the introduction of analytic therapies into China, not only from the viewpoint of Western teachers, but also from Chinese teachers, clinicians, anthropologists, and observers.
David E. Scharff and Sverre Varvin
Psychoanalysis, Psychoanalysis & Politics, Psychoanalytic Theory, Psychotherapy
Psychoanalysis took root in many countries around the world in the twentieth century, but China has special significance. It was, of course, the largest country from which analysis was completely excluded, from 1949 until the Chinese opening up began in the 1980s. It was not only the banning of psychoanalytic thought that marked China in this period. There was also an absence of an effective mental health system during times of great need in China because of war, famine, industrial collapse, enormous population growth, and changes in social structure. This was followed with further changes in family structure through the one-child policy, new policies of entrepreneurship, economic growth, urbanisation, and increasing exposure to the West.
This journal is conceived as a meeting place of cultures, as a place in which the issues of this important world encounter can be documented and examined. It is intended to be an intercultural journal in which theory and clinical experience can be presented and discussed. At a practical level, the editorial board is composed equally of eminent Chinese and Western colleagues who share an interest in the introduction and development of psychoanalysis in China. It contains articles from both Chinese and Western contributors, with discussion of ideas, and is a must-read for those with an interest in the development of psychoanalytic therapy in China.
David E. Scharff, MD, editor-in-chief, Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy in China; co-founder, former Director, and Chair of the Board, The International Psychotherapy Institute; Chair, the International Psychoanalytical Association’s Committee on Family and Couple Psychoanalysis; Director, Continuous Training Program in Couple and Family Psychoanalytic Therapy, Beijing; author and editor of more than 30 books, including Psychoanalysis in China (with Sverre Varvin); Psychoanalytic Couple Therapy (with Jill Scharff); Enrique Pichon-Riviere: Pioneer of the Link (with Roberto Losso and Lea Setton); and Family and Couple Psychoanalysis: A Global Perspective (with Elizabeth Palacios).
Sverre Varvin, MD, DPhil. Training and supervising analyst, Norwegian Psychoanalytic Society. Professor, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (OAUC), Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing, University of Oslo. Research areas: trauma and treatment of traumatised patients, treatment process, traumatic dreams, and psychoanalytic training. Chair, IPA China Committee. Has worked for more than twelve years in China with psychotherapy and psychoanalytic training programmes.
ABOUT THE EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS
David E. Scharff and Sverre Varvin
PART I: CHINESE CULTURE AND HISTORY RELEVANT TO MENTAL HEALTH
Idealising individual choice: work, love, and family in the eyes of young, rural Chinese
Mette Halskov Hansen and Cuiming Pang
Psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and the Chinese self
China—a traumatised country? The aftermath of the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966–1976) for the individual and for society
The religious context of China’s psycho-boom
The encounter of psychoanalysis and Chinese culture
Yin yang philosophy and Chinese mental health
Psychoanalysis meets China: transformative dialogue or monologue of the western voice?
DISCUSSION OF CHAPTER SEVEN
The shibboleth of cross-cultural issues in psychoanalytic treatment
Collective castration anxieties: an ethnopsychoanalytic perspective on relations between the sexes in China
Five things western therapists need to know for working with Chinese therapists and patients
David E. Scharff
PART II: THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOANALYSIS AND PSYCHOTHERAPY IN CHINA
West–East differences in habits and ways of thinking: the influence on understanding and teaching psychoanalytic therapy
Sverre Varvin and Bent Rosenbaum
The impact of psychic trauma on individuation and self-identity: how the psychic trauma of poverty affects individuation and self-identity in the context of the Chinese family
Working with Chinese patients: Are there conflicts between Chinese culture and psychoanalysis?
The development of psychoanalysis in China
Transference and countertransference in a Chinese setting: reflections on a psychotherapeutic process
Wang Zhiyan and Anders Zachrisson
Sleeping Beauty’s dream: when a myth from the East meets a tale from the West, a new story is born on the TV screen, one that can be understood psychoanalytically
DISCUSSION OF CHAPTER SIXTEEN
Rainer Rehberger and Sverre Varvin
PART III: DEVELOPING TRAINING IN CHINA
The development of psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in China
Sverre Varvin and Alf Gerlach
The development of psychoanalytic psychotherapy at Shanghai Mental Health Centre
Xu Yong, Qiu Jianyin, Chen Jue, and Xiao Zeping
Introducing psychoanalytic therapy into China: the CAPA experience
Ralph E. Fishkin and Lana P. Fishkin
German psychoanalysts in China and the start of group therapy work
Research on the development of Chinese psychoanalysts and psychotherapists
Dynamic psychotherapy: a model for teaching and supervision in China
Siri Erika Gullestad
Learning, translating, and practising analytic psychotherapy in China
Learning analytic psychotherapy as a student and psychiatric resident in Shanghai
Assessment and early treatment in psychoanalysis in China
Navigating the uncharted psychoanalytic seascape between East and West: a pilot project with Hainan Anning Hospital that cultivated mutual learning
PART IV: MARRIAGE AND MARITAL THERAPY IN CHINA AND TAIWAN
The impact of Chinese cultures on a marital relationship
Jill Savege Scharff and David E. Scharff
Cultural factors and projective identification in understanding a Chinese couple
Shi Qijia and David E. Scharff
The intergenerational and cultural transmission of trauma in Chinese couples: treatment considerations
Conflict between extended families and couple identity in Taiwan—a psychoanalytic exploration
David E. Scharff and Sverre Varvin
FIRING THE MIND MEMBERS